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:: Volume 11, Issue 4 (atummn 2020) ::
j.health 2020, 11(4): 447-458 Back to browse issues page
The Concentration of Nicotine in Indoor Air of the Cafes of Tehran and the Biological Levels of Nicotine and Cotinine in Exposed Smokers in These Cafes
M.R Masjedi, S HamzehAli, S Ghaffari, F Taghizdeh, M Alipour, H Arfaeinia
Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Abstract:   (323 Views)
Background & objectives: The number of waterpipe cafes has considerably grown in Tehran and other cities of Iran. This increase has occurred due to a wrong belief that the use of hookahs is harmless and relatively safe. So, the aim of current study is to investigate the nicotine concentration in the indoor air of the waterpipe and cigarette cafés as well as the biological concentration of nicotine and cotinine in urine and blood samples of exposed people.
Methods: The indoor samples were gathered from 36 cafés-14 Hookah cafes (HS), 8 cigarette cafes (CS), 6 both Hookah and cigarette cafes, and 8 non-smoking areas (NS)- Sampling was carried out in each café once during a working day and once on a holiday at weekends. After that, the concentration of nicotine was determined. Finally, the concentration of nicotine and cotinine was studied in blood and urine samples of exposed peoples.
Results: The results of this study showed that the most nicotine production in cafes was in the form of "hookah and cigarette cafes"> "hookah cafes"> "cigarette cafes"> "places without smoking", respectively. Also, it was observed that the concentration of nicotine in cafes during weekend sessions (with more active smokers) was higher than during the week sessions. Based on path analysis, the number of “active smokers” had the highest effect on releasing of nicotine inside the cafés, followed by the tobacco-type as the second influential parameter. Finally, it was observed that the highest amounts of nicotine and cotinine were found in blood and urine samples of smokers who were also employed in these cafes.
Conclusion: The most important point was that in all studied cafes where tobacco was consumed, the measurable concentrations of nicotine in the air and also nicotine and cotinine in the blood and urine samples of exposed people were found. This shows that there is an urgent need for formal evaluation to see whether these findings are compatible with the Iranian national law regarding banning of tobacco use in public places.
 
Keywords: Indoor Air, Waterpipe Cafés, Nicotine, Cotinine, Blood, Urine
Full-Text [PDF 185 kb]   (191 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2020/11/10 | Accepted: 2020/10/1 | Published: 2020/10/1
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Masjedi M, HamzehAli S, Ghaffari S, Taghizdeh F, Alipour M, Arfaeinia H. The Concentration of Nicotine in Indoor Air of the Cafes of Tehran and the Biological Levels of Nicotine and Cotinine in Exposed Smokers in These Cafes. j.health. 2020; 11 (4) :447-458
URL: http://healthjournal.arums.ac.ir/article-1-2253-en.html


Volume 11, Issue 4 (atummn 2020) Back to browse issues page
مجله سلامت و بهداشت Journal of Health
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